Zika Vaccines are working, but still years away
#Cosmoread: Zika virus continues to extend its reach throughout the US, and a growing body of evidence suggesting that the virus responsible for the increase in cases of the two neurological diseases may be, with the demand for a vaccine are necessary.
Zika, with infections usually are mild. The primary concern of the authorities about the virus is a birth defect called microcephaly, which causes babies to be born with underdeveloped heads and their possible, links are over, and Guillain-Barre syndrome, which people of any age affects and can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.
But the road to a vaccine typically lengthy and expensive, is paved with decades of research and testing to confirm the vaccine’s safety and security capabilities is, Alan Barrett, Texas, Sealy Center for Vaccine Development said the director.
“It takes about 20 years and cost $ 1.5 billion,” Barrett told Live Science.
However, Zika virus, existing vaccines and other mosquito-borne viruses that are closely related Zika could greatly accelerate the process of the research, added Barrett.
How to make a vaccine
To create a zika vaccine, Barrett explained, researchers first must identify which parts of the virus to the immune antibodies provide protection to start cranking out it is sufficient to trigger the system can stimulate. However, parts of these viruses in the animal models, injecting the antibody to confirm that the zika vaccine candidate to induce the immune system to test out, and also that it is safe.
Then the researchers tested in humans, which goes through several stages can progress to the first 10 to 20 people in the group, then the group of several hundred, and eventually more than 10,000 people, to show that the zika vaccine works in a large population, Barrett said.
For zika vaccines, testing and approval because of how long the zika vaccine is expected to remain active in the human body, many other drugs takes more time, he said.
“We study why it takes so long to go through, it is at least a year, maybe you want to provide protection and security for life, so that, because it’s such a high once you are trying to accomplish in terms of safety and efficacy, “Barrett said.
Thirty-three countries are now reporting local transmission of the virus Zika and Zika local suspected transmission position six and a World Health Organization (WHO) issued February 5, according to the report, there are. Zika January 2014. The first reported cases in the US to date, and since then, the country has been steady and fast spread of the virus, the report said.
Since the 1940s, scientists have been aware of Zika, but its symptoms are generally mild, the virus was not high on the list for zika vaccine research, Barrett told Live Science. “So our basic knowledge about the virus is very limited, and we are trying to take over from ground zero,” he said.
Zika virus researchers better and either microcephaly or possible links between Guillain- Barr, which has not been proven, working to understand.
But, meanwhile, there have already laid the foundation for a zika vaccine to be Zika: Researchers have developed zika vaccine for other flaviviruses – the virus family that includes Zika. It is a vaccine that works to get his cousin might be a few steps closer means.
Barrett said, “This is the great hope,” “we work to reduce the time and taking on these other zika vaccine applying them to develop a zika vaccine that can.”
So those that Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever and dengue as the cause – – Sanofi Pasteur, a zika vaccine development and production company, 2 February at the company’s work on zika vaccine for other flaviviruses Zika vaccine development project launched Zika announced that the zika vaccine provides a valuable progress, Nicholas Jackson, Sanofi Pasteur’s global head of research.
Zika dengue and 60 percent of their DNA, and Sanofi Pasteur dengue vaccine recently licensed, Dengvaxia, Zika vaccine is expected to help accelerate the development, Jackson said. “We know that equality can take advantage of. We used the same zika vaccine in dengue vaccine technology can take, Zika structural forces and tests that very fast drop,” Jackson said.
Jackson said Sanofi Pasteur virus researchers familiar with the family in general, and an established infrastructure for testing dengue vaccine also help. “That is what we try to get otherwise be a big jump in starts,” Jackson told Live Science.
Zika vaccine initiative was announced in recent weeks by other companies. Hyderabad, India, said India Biotech’s vaccine candidates in development currently. One of them is “a passive vaccine, pre-clinical testing in animals that have reached the stage,” the company Inovio Pharmaceuticals in South Korea and Pennsylvania, said in a statement on February 3. GeneOne Life Sciences collaborated on the DNA Zika are based vaccine, a new approach to traditional viral-based vaccines have proven to be less than the growth track.
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) has also been pursuing a “Zika at least two approaches to the vaccine,” Dr. Anthony Fauci, NIAID director, said in a January 28 press conference. Agency vaccine virus’ DNA used for research, and another life (but weakened) Zika virus used.
None of these has reached the stage of testing in human subjects.
“These methods are promising,” Fauci said at the conference, “We have to understand it in the next few years, this year Zika safe and effective vaccine is not widely available and is probably not important.”