People around the world celebrated “Mandela Day” on 18th of July 2014 Friday for the first time since the iconic former peace makers death, by doing good deeds on what would have been his 96th birthday. The call to do good deeds in his name started in Johannesburg and New York in 2009, and has expanded to 126 countries this year as Mandela Day and the legacy would continue forever celebrating this day on 18th of July every year.
The immortal soul will be preserved as way of living for all….!!!
A brief biography of Nelson Mandela:-
Nelson Mandela was the first president of democratic South Africa from 1994 Here is
a timeline from his birth in 1918 until 2008.
1918 – Birth
Nelson Rolihlahla was born on July 18, 1918 in a small village called Mvezo in the
Transkei. His father, Henry was Gadla Mphakanyiswa, was the chief of Mvezo and
councilor to the king of Thembuland.
1919 – Childhood
Mandela’s father’s land and money is expropriated by the local magistrate, on the
basis of “disobedience” after he refused to appear before the magistrate concerned
1925 – School Years
At the age of seven, Mandela the first member of his family to attend school. At
school give a Methodist teacher for Nelson Mandela nicknamed because the teacher is
too hard place of his native speak out.
1927 – Mandela’s father dies
Mandela’s father died of tuberculosis (TB) and in accordance with his father’s last
wish is to Mandela Mqhekezweni the capital of the royal entourage sent. King
Jonjintaba Dalindyebo of Thembu be appointed as Mandela’s guardian for the next 10
1937 – Initiation
According to tradition, Nelson at the age of 16 circumcised. The circumcision is
done on the banks of the Mbashe River, where many of his ancestors went through the
same ritual during their transition to manhood. After this initiation Nelson going
to Clarkebury [[Clarkebury | Clarkebury]], a Wesleyan mission school, during this
time the largest educational center in Thembuland.
During his time at the mission school Weslyaanse attend church at Nelson Mandela,
and listen to chiefs and councilors tribal meetings. He put his training to
continue Clarkebury Boarding Institute in Engcobo district, when the Head Town
Wesleyan College in Fort Beaufort, southwest of Umtata, and the Fort Hare
University is located in the municipal district of Alice.
1940 – Boycott
During his second year in college become Nelson Mandela involved in the Student
Council’s boycott against the university’s policy and was therefore asked to leave
1941 – Johannesburg
Temporarily out of university, decided to Johannesburg Nelson Mandela to flee to
get away from a planned marriage arranged by his guardian, chief Jongintaba. He
worked for a short time as a night watchman at a gold mine. Then he started as a
clerk at the law firm Witkin, Sidelsky and Edelman in Alexandra. During this time
he studied for his BA degree through UNISA.
1942 – ANC
After he graduated from UNISA, began meetings Mandela of the African National
Congress (ANC) to attend, a nationalist group that strives to unite Africans a
democratic government form. During these meetings he met Walter Sisulu, his mentor
and lifelong friend.
1943 – Activist
Mandela is an activist of the ANC and participate in protests to avoid bus fare in
the Alexandria area increased. He enrolled as a student in the University of the
Witwatersrand for a degree in law.
1944 – ANC Youth League
Mandela, Oliver Tambo and Walter Sisulu believe that the leadership of the ANC
demure and founded the ANC Youth League. They plan a mass support for the ANC and
the ANC also wants a more activist organization makes. In this years wedding
Mandela to Evelyn Mase, a nursing student who lives in Johannesburg, and also
Mandela’s province of origin.
1946 – Children
Mandela and Mase’s first son, Madiba, is born. The couple had a total of three
children. In 1957 the couple’s divorce roads. Mandela inspired by the miners’
strike and the discipline of the Indian community’s passive resistance against the
1947 – Legal Studies
Mandela completed his tenure at Witkin, Sidelsky and Edelman and began studying
full-time to his law degree. His daughter Makaziwe be born, but died nine months
later. A second daughter was born in 1953 and she is also called Makaziwe.
1948 – Apartheid
The National Party (NP) came to power with Dr DF Malan as leader. The newly elected
government of laws into effect that racial discrimination and oppression, supported
and consequently the beginning of apartheid.
1949 – Plan of Action
The ANC Youth League draft a Plan of Action that mass demonstrations, boycotts,
strikes and passive resistance encourage their unhappiness with the new apartheid
laws is clear.
1950 – Protests
Mandela helped to organize the National Day of Protest on 26 June. His second son
Makgatho, during these protests born. The NP announce several laws to strictly
enforce apartheid and intended for any mass action against the government to stop.
1951 – Attorney
In 1951, Mandela was president of the ANC Youth League. He also started at the law
firm of Terreblanche and Briggish work, and when Helman and Micher before his
qualifying examination. After his exams, he worked as a full-fledged lawyer at HM
1952 – Resistance Campaign
The ANC launches a Verontagsamingsveldtog, a non-violent mass resistance, Malan
after the ANC’s call for equal rights for black people ignore. Mandela is the head
volunteer for the campaign.
Mandela is arrested and charged he Act Suppression of Communism violated. Mandela,
along with other ANC members are found guilty, but the sentence of nine months in
prison for two years suspended. For the next two years may not Mandela meetings or
meetings to attend.
Mandela and Oliver Tambo started the first black law practice in downtown
Johannesburg. Cases they accept include black people persecuted by the new
apartheid laws. During the annual ANC conference, Mandela was elected as vice
president. He designed a plan for the ANC to move underground, the M-Plan.
1954 – Law degree in jeopardy
The Law Society of Transvaal trying Mandela’s law degree decreases, but the case is
1956 – Treason Trial
The morning of December 5, Mandela is arrested at his home for treason. He,
together with 150 other political activists charged with conspiracy to the South
African government violently overthrow. The trial took place from 1956 to 1961 All
the accused are acquitted. Shortly after this trial is about the entire executive
of the ANC for treason and detained for weeks in captivity. This trial is extended
1957 – Separate
Mandela and his wife Evelyn separate after leaving jail. Their three children
living with Evelyn.
1958 – Winnie Mandela
Mandela married on June 14 with Winnie Madikizela, a social worker at Baragwanath
Hospital in Soweto. Together the couple two children: Zezani, born February 5,
1959, and Zindziwa, born December 23, 1960.
Hendrik Verwoerd F be prime minister and adjust the apartheid laws strictly.
1959 – Homelands
Parliament approved the Law on the Promotion of Bantu Self-management. This law
forces them to blacks in eight different homelands to resettle. The ANC is strongly
against this law, but some black leaders adopted the law and cooperate with the
Pan Africanist Congress (PAC)
Robert Sobukwe, a former member of the ANC Youth League, founded the Pan Africanist
Congress (PAC), a new political group against apartheid. Whites and Indians in the
1960 – State of Emergency
A state of emergency in South Africa after police declared shots at a group of
protesters fire during the Sharpeville protests. 69 People killed and hundreds
wounded during the protests.
1961 – Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK)
In 1961 the ANC an armed struggle against the government. Mandela went underground
and launched the armed struggle by Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) establishment. MK’s
policy is to only government offices and symbols of apartheid to attack, not
people. Mandela flight from South Africa and travel through Africa and Europe and
build knowledge of guerrilla warfare. During this time he also support for the ANC
1962 – Robben Island
Mandela returned to South Africa and on Aug. 5 and arrested five years sent to
1963-1964 – Rivonia Trial
Although Mandela has packed his five-year sentence to serve, he tried again, along
with other ANC leaders, and charged with sabotage and the violent overthrow of the
government. The accused jumped execution free, but life imprisonment. During the
winter of 1964, Mandela and the other accused sent to Robben Island.
1966 – John Vorster
Verwoerd is assassinated and John Vorster in his place as prime minister.
1968-1969 – Death in the family
In the time frame of a year die Mandela’s mother, and his eldest son – the latter
in a car accident. Mandela is not allowed to funerals to attend.
1976 – Soweto uprising
Educators argue against the fact that Afrikaans compulsory in schools. Afrikaans is
seen as the language of the white oppressor. Over a period of eight months, 575
people died, of whom a quarter under the age 18.
1977 – Winnie’s imprisonment
Winnie is banished to Brandfort. Her daughter Zindzi go with her. Winnie spent more
than a year in jail and harassed by the police. Due to this harassment Winnie
develop a more aggressive and militant attitude towards the government.
1978 – PW Botha
Vorster and PW Botha resigns, succeeded him as prime minister.
1980 – “Free Mandela” campaign
During his exile Oliver Tambo launch, together with the ANC, the “Free Mandela”
campaign. For the next few years record numerous countries and international
groups, petitions, and hold rallies for Mandela’s release.
1982 – Pollsmoor Prison
After 18 years on Robben Island, Mandela to Pollsmoor Prison displaced.
1983-1984 Extension of violence
Due PW Botha’s plan for Indians and coloreds – but not for blacks – places it in
parliament, township residents began a revolt that spread across the country.
1985 – Edward Kennedy
In January visit Edward Kennedy, United States Senator for South Africa anti-
apartheid support. Bishop Desmond Tutu is its host. He also visits other Winnie
Mandela. PW Botha said he would free Mandela if he was violent uprisings abandoned.
Mandela’s daughter Zindzi read Mandela’s response to this question, which he
rejects the agreement, during a gathering at a stadium near Johannesburg before.
Kobie Coetsee, Justice Minister visited Mandela in hospital while he was there for
a prostate operation. The visit was unplanned. Although it is a social visit, it
was still a landmark. Mandela’s return to jail, he in a separate cell, so that a
government private access to him.
1986 – necklace
Winnie’s increasingly controversial and militant activities reached a climax during
speech at a funeral that his necklace approve. Her speech is widely in the national
press reported and is seen as a call to violence. The ANC does not approve of the
actions of Winnie good.
The government declared a state of emergency in South Africa due to the widespread
unrest in black townships.
Secret talks, by PW Botha approved and led by Coetsee, started between the
government and Mandela. Mandela on his participation this decision without
consulting other leaders of the ANC to discuss.
A few months after the Reagan administration its policies towards South Africa
revised, voting in the USA to strict economic sanctions against South Africa to
set. Several US companies started production in South Africa downsizing and US
banks cease to apply to South Africa to borrow.
1987 – Sold out?
As talks with the government collects, Mandela leaders of the ANC, as Thabo Mbeki
and Ahmed Kathrada, join its talks with the government. Their reactions range from
anger to strong support. Rumors doing the rounds that Mandela sold out.
1988 – “Freedomfest”
On the 24th anniversary of Mandela’s vonnising a music concert held outside London
called “Freedomfest – Nelson Mandela’s 70th Birthday Celebration”; It is in 60
countries on television.
In December, after Mandela is treated for tuberculosis, he was at the Victor
Verster Prison transferred. Here he is in a luxurious, secluded house with a
swimming pool, a private chef (Jack Black) and a lush garden. She talks with the
government continue. In the same month, four young men, including the 13-year-old
Stumpy Seipei kidnapped by members of the Mandela United Football Club, a group of
young men as Winnie Mandela’s bodyguards acted, and Winnie’s house edge. The other
men escaped, but Stumpy disappeared. His battered body is found weeks later. Winnie
is on this matter.
1989 – Meeting with Botha
After several delays and Botha met Mandela for tea at the president’s residence.
The meeting was cordial and Mandela called for the release of Walter Sisulu.
FW de Klerk
PW Botha resigned and FW de Klerk is sworn in as acting president. Mandela is
encouraged when the Clerk has the Rivonia trial prisoners release, which including
Sisulu. FW de Klerk began the dismantling apartheid structure. He abandons the plan
to blacks in separate homelands to remain and accept the principle of shared power.
Meeting with the Clerk
On December 13, Mandela and De Klerk their first three meetings.
1990 – Ontperking
In a dramatic speech by De Klerk in parliament he delineate the ANC and other
political organizations. He also announces that Mandela would be released.
After 27 years of imprisonment, Mandela on 11 February 1990 released. His new life
is busy and he is also deputy president of the ANC. He also visited several
countries with his wife Winnie, including his friend Oliver Tambo in Sweden.
ANC and the National Party (NP) began negotiations for a new multi-racial democracy
for South Africa to create. The talks have not smooth, due to the ANC’s unhappiness
with the violence in the black communities. Mandela and De Klerk continues to hold
ANC and Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) collide
On July 14, the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP), a Zulu group led by Chief Buthelezi,
established as a political party. The IFP difference with the ANC, especially with
regard to the armed struggle. Although Mandela reaches out to Buthelezi their
disputes to resolve, target the IFP ANC strongholds in KwaZulu-Natal. Widespread
violence breaks out.
1990 – Pretoria Minute
The ANC and the government signed both the Pretoria Minute, in which the two
parties agree to the armed conflict to end. Mandela put pressure on De Klerk to
investigate police brutality, and the government’s support for the violence in
KwaZulu-Natal. Mandela and De Klerk’s relationship is strained because of the
1991 – Winnie’s trial
Winnie’s trial, where she is charged with the kidnapping and assault of four youths
by the Mandela United Football Club. Through all the years of controversy supports
Mandela and his wife attend her trial. Winnie is convicted on the charge of
kidnapping but not assault, and to six years in prison. During her appeal, her
sentence was suspended and she should just pay a fine.
After 21 years, South African athletes again admitted to the Olympics to
In July like the ANC for their first annual conference in South Africa and Mandela
as ANC president.
The first formal negotiations with the government take place on December 20 at the
CODESA | Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA). Mandela De Klerk to
fall in his speech after De Klerk said the ANC bad in a previous speech. They met
for the next six months again.
1992 – Separation
Mandela announced that he and Winnie were separating. Winnie resigned as head of
the Welfare of the ANC, but resigned from the National Executive Committee.
Violence continues in the “townships”, with frequent clashes between police and
residents. Mandela was furious and said that police violence instead encourages
them to stop. Mandela De Klerk holds responsible for this situation; De Klerk was
held that he has no control over the violence.
Another talks are held during CODESA 2 to the structure of a plan to host a
democracy. The talks during a stalemate, but both parties agree to work together
for a solution.
1992 Rollout of mass action
Frustrated with unsuccessful negotiations, the ANC planned a policy of rolling mass
action, which included marches, boycotts and strikes include the government to show
how strong their support in the country. Meanwhile, the violence continues with the
IFP that the ANC attack, where 46 people died in Boipatong.
The increase in deaths forcing Mandela and De Klerk to re-start negotiations. They
signed a document under which they agree to a formal investigation into the
continuing violence and police. This document establishes a constitutional assembly
that a new constitution for the country will be designed.
1993 – Chris Hani died
Chris Hani, a popular leader of both the ANC and the South African Communist Party
(SACP) by a white radicals killed. Mandela appeared on television and ask that
people refrain them from violence.
Nobel Peace Prize
Received in December Mandela and De Klerk jointly received the Nobel Prize Freedom.
1994 – Democratic Election
On 26 April, for the first time in South African history by all races for the same
parliament voted. The ANC won the election, and Mandela became president.
Nelson Mandela’s inauguration as the 11th president of South Africa and as the
first democratically elected president on 10 May. FW de Klerk is sworn in as vice
president. In the same year published his autobiography Mandela.
1995 – Rugby World Cup
In 1995 South Africa hosted the Rugby World Cup, which South Africa won. Nelson
Mandela wearing the Springbok clothes when he won the trophy to captain Francois
Pienaar handed. This gesture is seen as a major step for the reconciliation of
white and black in South Africa.
1996 – Separate
Winnie Mandela and divorce. Winnie tried as long as possible to avoid divorce.
1998 – Graca Machel
On his 80th birthday with Mandela married Graca Machel, the widow of a former
president of Mosambiek.1999 – Retire
Mandela retires and Thabo Mbeki succeeded him as president. Thabo Mbeki was in 1997
elected as the new president of the ANC.
2000 – Mediator
Mandela appointed as a mediator during the civil war in Burundi.
He started the Nelson Mandela Invitational golf tournament, by Gary Player offered.
Mandela criticized Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe’s government.
2001 – Cancer
In 2001 Nelson Mandela was diagnosed with prostate cancer and treated with
He is an honorary citizen of Canada.
In 2003 Mandela presented the 46664 concert (named after his prison number) in Cape
Town. The purpose of the concert is to make people more aware of HIV / AIDS in
South Africa. Known international stars such as Beyonce, Bono and Youssou N’Dour
performs at the concert.
Mandela criticized the United States and George Bush’s decision to a war in Iraq
2004 – Exit
Mandela announced that he was out of the public eye will act.
HIV / AIDS conference
Mandela departure to Bangkok to join the 15th International HIV / AIDS conference
Freedom of the City
Mandela received Johannesburg’s highest honor when he was the Freedom of the City
2005 – Another son died
Mandela’s son Makgatho Mandela dies of an illness related to HIV / AIDS. Mandela
decided to reveal that his son had AIDS in an effort to the stigma surrounding AIDS
2007 – Retired world leaders
Mandela formed the group “The Elders” with world leaders like Kofi Annan,
Archbishop Desmond Tutu and Jimmy Carter to problems around the world to address.
Mandela’s 90th birthday in South Africa and internationally celebrated, including a
further 46664 Concert in Hyde Park, London, in order to raise money for HIV / AIDS
Source: Mandela Day