This Article helps you to understand the Hepatitis C its symptoms ways of infection and treatment with various viral hepatitis: symptoms, ways of infection, treatment. reference
Viral hepatitis – common and dangerous infectious disease of the liver. Of all forms of viral hepatitis, hepatitis A is the most common. According to in estimated 3.2 million people in the United States are living with chronic hepatitis .
Viral hepatitis – common and dangerous infectious disease of the liver.
Of all forms of viral hepatitis, hepatitis A is the most common. From the moment of infection until the first signs of the disease takes place from 7 to 50 days. The most common onset accompanied by a rise in temperature, and may resemble the flu. Most cases of spontaneous recovery is completed and do not require active treatment. In severe appoint a dropper, eliminating the toxic effect of the virus on the liver.
Hepatitis B virus is transmitted through sexual contact, with injections of sterile syringes for drug addicts, from the mother – fetus. In typical cases, the disease begins with fever, weakness, joint pain, nausea and vomiting. Sometimes there are eruptions. There is an increase in liver and spleen. It may also be darkening of the urine and feces discoloration.
Hepatitis C – the most severe form of viral hepatitis, which is also called post-transfusion hepatitis. This means that they fell ill after a blood transfusion. This is due to the fact that testing donated blood for hepatitis C virus began just a few years ago. Quite often the infection occurs through syringes among drug addicts. Chance of sexual transmission and from mother – fetus. The greatest danger is a chronic form of the disease, which often turns into cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Chronic develops in about 70-80% of patients. The combination of hepatitis C to other forms of viral hepatitis dramatically aggravates the disease and threatens death.
Hepatitis D – “disease-satellite”, complicating the course of hepatitis B.
Hepatitis E is similar to hepatitis A, but it begins gradually and more dangerous for pregnant women.
The latter family of hepatitis, hepatitis G, similar to C, but less dangerous.
Ways of infection
Hepatitis viruses enter the body in two main ways. A sick person can excrete the virus in the faeces, after which the water or food into the intestine to other people. Doctors call this mechanism the fecal-oral contamination. It is typical for hepatitis A and E. Thus, hepatitis A and hepatitis E occur mainly due to non-compliance with personal hygiene, as well as imperfection of the water supply system. This explains the highest prevalence of these viruses in the underdeveloped countries.
The second way of infection – human contact with infected blood. It is characteristic of the virus of hepatitis B, C, D, G. The greatest danger, because of the prevalence and serious consequences of infection are viruses hepatitis B and C.
Situations in which most contamination occurs:
– Transfusion of blood. Worldwide, an average of 0.01-2% of the donors are carriers of hepatitis viruses, so now donated blood before transfusion recipient is examined for the presence of hepatitis B and C. The risk of infection is increased in patients who require repeated blood transfusions or drugs
– The use of a needle different people many times increases the risk of contracting hepatitis B, C, D, G. This is the most common route of infection among drug users;
– Viruses B, C, D, G can be transmitted through sexual contact. The most common sexually transmitted hepatitis B. It is believed that the probability of infection with hepatitis C, the couple small.
The path of infection from mother to child (doctors call it “vertical”) is observed less frequently. The risk increases if a woman has an active form of the virus, or in the last months of pregnancy suffered acute hepatitis. The probability of infection of the fetus increases rapidly if the mother, in addition to the hepatitis B virus is HIV. With the mother’s milk the hepatitis B virus is not transmitted. Hepatitis viruses B, C, D, G transmitted by tattooing, acupuncture, ear piercing with nu-steriles needles. In 40% of cases the source of infection remains unknown.
From the moment of infection until the first signs of the disease takes different time from 2-4 weeks for hepatitis A, 2-4 and even 6 months for hepatitis C. After this period, during which the virus multiplies and adapts to the body, the disease begins Express yourself.
First, until the jaundice, hepatitis, influenza and resembles begins with fever, headache, general malaise, body aches as hepatitis A. With hepatitis B and C start is usually more gradual, not abrupt temperature rise. For example, hepatitis B virus behaves negligible temperature, joint pain, rash sometimes.
The initial symptoms of hepatitis C may restrict weakness and loss of appetite. After a few days the picture is beginning to change: loss of appetite, pain in the right upper quadrant, nausea, vomiting, dark urine and feces discolored. Doctors fix enlargement of the liver and less often – the spleen. In the blood of hepatitis detected characteristic change: specific markers of viruses, increased bilirubin, liver function tests increased by 8-10 times.
Typically, after the appearance of jaundice patient’s condition improves. However, this does not occur in hepatitis C as well as in chronic alcoholics and drug abusers, regardless of the type of virus that causes a disease due to intoxication. The rest of the patients gradually over a few weeks, there is a regression of symptoms. So proceed acute forms of viral hepatitis.
The clinical course of hepatitis can be varying degrees of severity: mild, moderate and severe forms. There is also a fourth, fulminant, that is a form of lightning. This is the hardest kind of hepatitis, which is developing the massive liver necrosis, usually ends with the death of the patient.
The greatest danger is chronic hepatitis. Chronic hepatitis is typical only for B, C, D. The most characteristic symptoms of chronic hepatitis are malaise, and growing by the end of the day fatigue, inability to perform the previous exercise. In the advanced stage of chronic viral hepatitis found jaundice, dark urine, itching, bleeding, weight loss, enlargement of the liver and spleen, spider veins.
Duration of hepatitis A is an average of 1 month. Special antiviral treatment in this disease is not required. Treatment includes: basic therapy, bed rest, diet. Where indicated appointed detoxification therapy (intravenously or orally), symptomatic therapy. Usually recommended to avoid alcohol, which is a toxic substance, it can weaken the already damaged liver.
Acute viral hepatitis B with clinical symptoms ends recovery more than 80% of cases. Patients undergoing anicteric and sub-clinical form, hepatitis B often hroniziruetsya. Chronic hepatitis leads eventually to the development of cirrhosis and liver cancer. Full treatment of chronic hepatitis B is almost does not occur, but it is possible to achieve a favorable disease course, subject to the specific recommendations concerning the work and rest, nutrition, psycho-emotional stress, as well as when taking drugs that enhance metabolism in the liver cells.
Compulsory basic therapy is performed. Antiviral treatment is prescribed and performed under strict medical supervision in cases where there are indications. Antiviral treatment include drugs of interferon. Treatment is carried out for a long time. Sometimes it is necessary repeated courses of therapy.
Hepatitis C – the most serious type of hepatitis. The development of the chronic form there is at least one in seven of the sick. These patients have a high risk of developing cirrhosis and liver cancer. The basis for all regimens is interferon-alpha. The mechanism of action of this drug is to prevent the infection of new liver cells (hepatocytes). Interferon can not guarantee complete recovery, however, the treatment of them prevents the development of cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Hepatitis D occurs only against the background of hepatitis B. Treatment of hepatitis D should be carried out in a hospital. It takes as a base, and antiviral therapy.
Hepatitis E is not treated as a human body is strong enough to get rid of the virus without the help of treatment. A month and a half there comes a full recovery. Sometimes doctors prescribe symptomatic therapy for elimination of headache, nausea and other unpleasant symptoms.
Complications of viral hepatitis may become functional and inflammatory diseases of the biliary tract and hepatic coma, and if a violation of the bile ducts amenable to therapy, the hepatic coma is a terrible sign of lightning forms of hepatitis, are fatal in nearly 90% of cases. In 80% of cases caused by lightning during the combined action of viral hepatitis B and D. Hepatic coma occurs due to massive necrosis (necrosis) of liver cells. The decay products of liver tissue into the blood, causing damage to the central nervous system and the extinction of all life functions.
Chronic hepatitis B is dangerous because the absence of adequate treatment often leads to cirrhosis and sometimes liver cancer.
The hardest thing for hepatitis B is a combination of two or more viruses, such as B and D or B and C are even B + D + C. In this case, the prognosis is extremely poor.
To protect against hepatitis B infection, you must abide by simple rules. Do not drink unboiled water, always wash fruits and vegetables, not to neglect the thermal treatment products. So you can prevent hepatitis A.
In general, you should avoid contact with body fluids of others. For protection from hepatitis B and C – in the first place with the blood. The microscopic amounts of blood can remain on razors, toothbrushes, nail clippers. It is not necessary to share these items with others. You can not do piercings and tattoos unsterile instruments. It is necessary to take precautions during sex.
The material is based on open sources of information