Eye Lens infants’ use of the stem cells regenerated
#Cosmoread: Stem cells could help treat people with cataracts and even some who are blinded by eye tissue regenerating and replacing defective lenses, children and rabbits, according to new experiments.
The layer of tissue that covers the front of the eye lens – – people to see properly, both the eye lens and the cornea of the eye in order to be transparent. People who clouding in the eye lens or cornea are the current treatment, including artificial implant or transplant donor, respectively, but these can be risky surgical procedures, the researchers said.
A major cause of childhood blindness – new research scientists under the age of 2 to 12 infants who had congenital cataract all minimally invasive surgery performed. They removed cataracts children, but in their eyes carefully spared some cells, eye lens epithelial stem / progenitor cells (LECs), which can then be called upon to revive the eye lens.
They found that infants’ incisions heal within a month, and the transparency of its line of sight of infants with congenital cataracts currently, more than 20 times better than the standard treatment was received.
Findings show that “we have our own stem cells to regenerate tissue or organ can exploit,” Dr. Kang Zhang, who led the study and California, is an ophthalmologist at the University of San Diego.
Researchers had previously shown that the LECs human lens can be used to regenerate.
Cataract is a clouding of the eye lens, and is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Current treatments for glaucoma surgery the clouded eye lens of the eye by removing its support from the capsule and replace it with an artificial eye lens is included. Over 20 million glaucoma patients worldwide undergo this procedure every year.
Zhang noted that only 4 in 10,000 cataract patients are infants. However, “In theory, this approach for any age, because the eye lens stem cells exist through life, should work,” he said. Older patient’s stem cells to regenerate the lenses may need a bit of a boost, he said.
Current treatment for cataract artificial eye lens implantation, which is about 6 millimeters wide eye lens capsule needs to be a cut. Treatment can cause inflammation and destruction of LECs, which normally helps protect the eye lens from damage. Or a patient’s line of sight, which can result in the Cloud – Also, the scars of surgery or eye lens can lead to abnormal growth of cells.
In preliminary experiments, Zhang and colleagues LECs could separate from the mice, and these cells are transparent, lens like form structures that can be detected. Scientists argue that minimally invasive surgery, only 1 to 1.5 millimeters wide, involving cuts to remove cataracts, while also reviving LECs that can go on the eye lens protection, Zhang said. They, rabbits and monkeys have managed lens regeneration process before attempting to children.
In the study, only 4.3 percent of infants surgical wound the size of they were made by the present method. Even scientists, but also from the center to the periphery of the eye lens moved to the intersection of the journal Nature.
The researchers said that their new method with only a small number of patients tested. They will need “much larger and long-term clinical trials to show its safety and efficacy,” said Zhang.
This is due to problems with the cornea to treat blindness comes; gold-standard treatment includes corneal transplant donors. However, the recipient’s immune system may reject the transplanted cornea.
A different feeling, the researchers growing cells such rejection cornea that include patients avoid testing out a promising strategy.
Researchers at Osaka University in Japan and colleagues used Kohji Nishida induced stem cells (IPSCs), which is the chemical that mature cells with the potential to become any tissue in the body are reprogrammed, to develop the new cornea.
During fetal development, eye tissue is made up of three layers and the highest level emerge from the cornea and eye lens. In experiments, scientists developing eye that resembled a chemical that has promoted the creation of a structure with increased human IPSCs. Researchers in this structure, which generates molecules can expect a corneal stem cells harvested from. Sheets of corneal tissue from these cells has increased, and they found that the rabbits had corneal blindness could restore sight.
It is unlikely that a structure mimicking embryonic eye growing treating corneal blindness seems to have an economically viable strategy, Julie Daniels, the Institute of Ophthalmology at University College London, a professor of regenerative medicine and cellular therapy, which was not involved in the study noted.
The real value of this research is how the structure of such experiments will help to better understand the evolution of the eye, and Zhang and his colleagues accomplished as “Such an understanding eventually situ manipulation of stem cell populations in the eye be able to, “Daniels wrote in a comment on the research.