In a world with no antibiotics, how doctors treat the infection?
#Cosmoread: The development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial treatments is arguably the greatest achievement of modern medicine. However, overuse and misuse of antimicrobial therapy lead to resistance expressed in microorganisms. The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as antibiotic-resistant bacteria, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus species (VRE) and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has emerged. CRE some species are resistant to many antibiotics, and “superbugs” has been considered with the news.
Alternative medicine since ancient times has been used to treat the infection, but none as reliable as a safe and effective antimicrobial therapy is modern.
Unfortunately, the growing resistance and the lack of development of new agents, the possibility of the return of the former antimicrobial era can become a reality.
Antimicrobials 20 were developed in the first century, how the infection treated?
Blood, leeches and knives
The blood shed for over 3,000 years, was used as a medical treatment. 1000 BC Originated in Egypt and was used until the mid-20th century.
Medical texts from antiquity all the way until the 1940s bloodshed recommend for a wide variety of conditions, but especially for the transition. As late as 1942, William Osler 14th edition of the principles and practice of medicine, internal medicine preeminent historical textbook, as a treatment for pneumonia included bloodletting.
Bloodshed is an ancient medical theory that four bodily fluids, or “humors” (blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile), must re
main in balance in order to protect health based. Infections were thought to be due to an excess of blood, the blood was removed from the patient. A method for making an incision in a vein or artery, but it was not the only one. Cupping is a common method in which hot glass cup is placed on the skin, creating a vacuum, breaking into small blood vessels under the skin, resulting in large areas of bleeding was. Most notoriously, leeches were used as a version of the bloodshed.
Interestingly, although the bloodshed had been recommended by physicians, practice really barbers, or was done by the “barber-surgeon.” The red and white striped pole barber shop “advertising” their blood services, blood red and white stripes as a symbol signify originated.
At least for certain types of bacteria in the early stages of infection – there may be some benefit to the practice. Many bacteria need iron to replicate, and heme iron, a component of red blood cells are used. In theory, low red blood cells available to maintain the iron resulting bacterial infection.
Some mercury for their syphilis?
Naturally occurring chemical elements and chemical compounds, especially historically wound infections and syphilis, for a variety of infections have been used as medicine for.
Topical iodine, bromine and mercury-containing compounds during the American Civil War was used to treat infected wounds and gangrene. Bromine was used most often, but when applied topically or injected into the wound was very painful, and can cause tissue damage itself. These treatments inhibited bacterial cell replication, but they can also cause damage to normal human cells.
Mercury compounds from about 1910 to 1,363 compounds for the treatment of syphilis, can be applied to the skin has been used orally or injected. But the side effects on the skin and mucous membranes, kidney and brain damage, extensive damage, and even death can join. Arsphenamine, an arsenic derivative, it also was used in the first half of the 20th century. While it was effective, side effects optic neuritis, seizures, fever, rash and kidney injury were involved.
Thankfully, in 1943, penicillin and supplanted these treatments for all stages of syphilis remains first-line therapy.
Looking into the garden
Over the centuries, a variety of herbal treatments have been developed to treat infections, but very few controlled clinical trials have been evaluated by.
One of the more popular treatments derived herbally quinine, which was used to treat malaria. It basically cinchona tree bark, which is native to South America was isolated from. Today we use a synthetic form of quinine for the treatment of disease. Earlier, cinchona bark powder was dried, ground, and mixed with drinking water. Cinchona bark used to treat fever was described by Jesuit missionaries in the 1600s, although it was likely first used in the original population and no antibiotics.
Artemisinin, which Artemisia annua (sweet wormwood) was synthesized by the plant is another effective malaria treatment. A Chinese
scientist Tu Youyou, and his team analyzed the ancient Chinese medical texts and folk remedies, Artemisia annua extracts from animals identified as effective in inhibiting replication of the malaria parasite. To Youyou artemisinin 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery was coawarded.
You probably botantically therapy against wound infection in your kitchen cupboard is derived. The use of honey in wound healing back to 2000 BC It dates back to the Sumerians .. High sugar content, can dehydrate bacterial cells, while the acidity of many bacteria can inhibit the growth and division. Honey is also an enzyme, glucose oxidase, hydrogen peroxide, which kills bacteria and reduces the oxygen.
Honey is considered the most powerful naturally occurring. The tea tree, bush flowers, which is derived from the additional antibacterial properties.
Like other botanically derived therapies, honey has led to the creation of pharmaceuticals. MEDIHONEY®, Derma Sciences is a medical grade product developed by, in water treatment as well as to promote other types of wounds is used.
Combat Antimicrobial Resistance
Some of these ancient therapy has proved effective enough that they are still used in one form or another, on the whole they are just as good in treating infections that are not modern antimicrobials and no antibiotics. Sadly, thanks to the overuse and misuse of antibiotics are becoming less effective.
In the United States each year, at least two million people have bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics become infected with, and at least 23,000 people as a direct result of these infections die each year.
While most resistant bacteria are reported, resistant fungi, viruses and other microorganisms, including parasites, can produce. Eventually increasing resistance to antimicrobials is likely that some infections can be untreatable with currently we have been raised and no antibiotics.
The race is on to find new treatments for these infections, and new therapies and researchers are discovering new sources of antibiotics.
As directed and only when necessary, proper vaccination, safe food handling practices and wash your hands to avoid infection in the first place, in addition to the use of antibiotics.
Tracking resistant infections so we can learn more about them and their risk factors, as well as to limit the use of antibiotics in humans and animals, also may help prevent the risk of resistant bacteria.